Tech & Rights

COVID-19 Pass Tracker: Monitoring Vaccine-, Immunity- And Test-Certificates In The EU

In this tracker, the Civil Liberties Union for Europe collects the most important developments around COVID-19 passes, with a special emphasis on human rights concerns.

by Anna Ackermann

Last updated on 15 October 2021

The EU Digital COVID Certificate Regulation entered into application on 1 July 2021. National authorities are in charge of issuing the certificate to their citizens and residents. According to the European Commission, when travelling, the EU Digital COVID Certificate holder should in principle be exempted from free movement restrictions -- unless those restrictions are necessary and proportionate to safeguard public health.

The EU Digital COVID Certificates are primarily meant to facilitate cross-border travels, but in some countries they will also be used domestically. In addition, some EU countries keep using their own COVID passes launched earlier this year for domestic purposes parallel to the EU Digital COVID Certificates. You can find up-to-date information on travel restrictions and other COVID-related measures here.

Should you have read about a development the European public needs to be informed about, but you do not see it below, please send an email with the relevant link to Liberties’ advocacy and research assistant, Anna Ackerman.

Austria | Belgium | Bulgaria | Croatia | Cyprus | Czechia | Denmark | Estonia | Finland | France | Germany

Greece | Hungary | Ireland | Italy | Latvia | Lithuania | Luxembourg | Malta | Netherlands | Poland | Portugal

Romania | Slovakia | Slovenia | Spain | Sweden | Europe

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From 15 August 2021: In order to enter Austria, people must either be fully vaccinated, tested or recovered. Proof of this must be presented using the ”green passport”, that is, the EU Digital Covid Certificate. While proof of a single vaccination previously sufficed, provided that it was administered min. 22 and max. 90 days ago, a second vaccination is now also required in order to be allowed to enter the country, and also to visit certain venues like restaurants. .

August 2021: The Federal Computing Center has added several functions to the Green Pass app in smaller updates. This includes a simplified PDF import of the COVID-19 certificates and a validation of the electronic signature. The GreenCheck app (with which the validity of Green Passes can be checked), which was previously available as a web app and for iOS, has now also been released for Android.

20 June 2021: The Austrian authorities announced that the COVID-19 Passport is fully operational and ready to be issued to citizens.


28 September 2021: The Belgian Consultative Committee decided that from 1 October the CovidSafeBE app will replace the old COVID Event Risk Model (CERM) and the COVID Infrastructure Risk Model (CIRM) at mass events with more than 500 people indoors and more than 750 people outdoors. CovidSafeBE is the Belgian pendant to the EU Digital COVID Certificate and is accepted in all European countries. The CERM/CIRM is an online tool to estimate the risk of infection at events, while there will be given either a "GO" or "NO-GO".

13 August 2021: Belgium recognises COVID-19 vaccination certificates issued in England and Wales. Fully vaccinated travellers from these two states holding the document will therefore be allowed to enter Belgium without being subject to a ten-day quarantine requirement.

3 August 2021: Over 11 million COVID-19 passports issued through “CovidSafeBE” App.

16 June 2021: The EU Digital COVID Certificate became available in Belgium. Information on how to obtain the certificate can be found here.


1 June 2021: Started issuing EU Digital COVID Certificates.


28 October 2021: From 4 October all employees in the health or social sector will have to present a certificate of vaccination or recovery. If they are not able to do this, they must get tested twice a week, while tests would be free for now. Also, patients who don't need urgent treatment must also prove that they are not being infected with the virus.

5 October 2021: At KBC Split Hospital in the capital, about 50 protesters gathered to speak out against the rules on needing to present vaccination/recovery/test certificates.

1 June 2021: Started issuing EU Digital COVID Certificates.


31 August 2021: Cyprus issued the "CovScan Cyprus" App which checks the status of the EU Digital COVID Certificate.

9 July 2021: Passing of “Safe Pass” policy whereby citizens aged 12 or older are obliged to possess and present either a vaccination certificate with at least one dose — including completion of a three-week post-vaccination period — or proof that a person has contracted COVID-19 in the last 6 months, or a negative PCR or rapid test with a 72-hour validity period. The SafePass must be presented by employees and customers entering an establishment, be it their workplace, a restaurant or bar. In addition, the provision of free rapid antigen tests will be abolished as of 1 August 2021 in an effort to exert pressure on unvaccinated citizens either to get vaccinated or pay for a PCR or rapid test every 72 hours.

1 July 2021: Official launch of the EU Digital COVID Certificate.

Czech Republic

30 July 2021: The Czech government announced that state employees who have received their COVID-19 vaccination will be entitled to two days paid holiday. Prime Minister Andrej Babiš encouraged regional and local governments to follow suit, as well as urging private companies to encourage their employees to get the vaccine.

7 July 2021: An estimated 400 protestors gathered in Prague to protest against COVID-related measures and certificates. The crowd watched a live screening of the Chamber of Deputies, as it voted on an amendment to the Public Health Protection Act. The amendment deals with COVID travel passes, bringing the country in line with EU regulations that would allow for easier travel between member states. The crowd voiced their dissent as Minister of Health Adam Vojtěch spoke in front of the Chamber in favour of the amendment, which legally authorises the issuance of COVID certificates.

1 June 2021: Started issuing EU Digital COVID Certificates.


09 September 2021: Denmark is the first European country to lift all COVID-19 restrictions inside of the country on 10 September. This means the COVID-19 passport is not needed anymore, except for traveling.

1 June 2021: Started issuing EU Digital COVID Certificates.


24 September 2021: The head of the non-governmental organization "Foundation for the Protection of the Family and Tradition" (SAPTK) Varro Vooglaid is going to court claiming the use of COVID-19 certificates is unconstitutional. He states the immunity after recovery would be higher than after vaccination, thus, giving the same rights to recovered and vaccinated people is not lawful.

10 June 2021: Launched the EU Digital COVID Certificate. Information on how to obtain the certificates can be found here.


20 September 2021: Fully vaccinated people or persons who recovered in the last 6 months can now enter Finland without restrictions. Furthermore, Finland stopped its border controls inside the EU/Schengen area, when arriving by land. If you enter Finland by plane and don’t hold a valid COVID-19 vaccination or recovery certificate, you have to present a negative COVID-19 antigen or PCR test result issued within at least 72 hours of arrival. Otherwise, a COVID-19 test upon arrival and self-isolation is mandatory. You can check your individual travel requirements with the FINENTRY tool, since some regions and countries are exempt from this.

22 June 2021: Launched the EU Digital COVID Certificate.


2 October 2021: On the 12th consecutive Saturday, nearly 48.000 people demonstrated against the mandatory holding of COVID passes. Indeed, the number of protesters is declining, since the Saturday before the number was 64.000.

15 September 2021: All persons working in health-related jobs must get their first dose of the COVID-19 vaccination until 15 September. Checks will be carried out and if people turn out not to be vaccinated, they may be suspended without pay.

7 August 2021: According to figures communicated by the Ministry of the Interior, 237,000 protested against the current COVID-19-related restrictions throughout France, including 17,000 in Paris alone. This is a new escalation of the anti-COVID pass mobilisation that has occurred for the fourth weekend in a row.

5 August 2021: The French Constitutional Court has ruled that the law making the COVID-19 Passport and vaccination mandatory for the general public and health professionals, respectively, is constitutional.

31 July 2021: Thousands of people protested in Paris and other French cities against a mandatory coronavirus health pass for entry to a wide array of public venues, introduced by the government as it battles a fourth wave of infections. It was the third weekend in a row that people opposed to President Emmanuel Macron's new COVID-19 measures have taken to the streets. An interior ministry official said 204,090 had demonstrated across France.

20 July 2021: The French government has been forced to row back on some restrictions following a pushback from industries and street protests. Among the new rules, French President Emmanuel Macron sought to turbo-drive vaccinations by making a COVID green pass necessary to enter cafés, restaurants and a range of other venues this summer. As a result of the outcry, the government made several concessions, including lowering fines for noncompliance, pushing back deadlines and changing the rules for shopping centers. Back in April, French President Emmanuel Macron pledged inan interview with the regional press that "the health pass will never be a right of access that discriminates among the French. It cannot be made compulsory for access to everyday places."

18 July 2021: France will require a coronavirus test (PCR or antigen) of a maximum of 24 hours to unvaccinated travellers from Spain, Portugal, the Netherlands, Greece and Cyprus, compared to the current 72 hours.

16 July 2021: France prepares to introduce COVID-19 “health pass” for access to cultural venues. According to France24, starting 21 July 21 2021 the “pass sanitaire” will be “compulsory for access to leisure and cultural venues with more than 50 people, including cinemas and museums. From the beginning of August, it will be necessary to show your health pass to have coffee or eat lunch at a restaurant – even on an outdoor terrace – or to shop at a mall.”

1 July 2021: EU Digital COVID Certificate fully launched.

23 June 2021: France’s COVID-19 vaccination and test certificates are updated from 23 June to align the document with the EU verification system. People whose vaccination certificate has been issued by the French government need to get their document updated in order to be allowed to travel to other EU Member States in July. Information on how to update the French certificates can be found here.


15 September 2021: More and more states decide to impose a "2G" rule on public venues like restaurants or gyms. This means only people who are either vaccinated or recovered will be allowed to enter these venues. Venues operating under 2G are allowed to serve more guests and are under less strict pandemic rules. You can find the specific rules for every state here.

1 August 2021: Protesters clashed with police in Berlin over government measures to prevent the spread of COVID-19 and in defiance of a ban on demonstrations. The Berlin police department, which had more than 2000 officers on the beat in the city this weekend, said that officers were harassed and attacked by protesters. The protests led to multiple arrests.

30 July 2021: German police banned several demonstrations registered for 31 July and 1 August over doubts over whether sanitary measures would be adhered to. Protests under the banners: “The recovery of our fundamental rights” and “the year of freedom and peace - life after the pandemic,” were notified that their requests to demonstrate had been denied. The ban was based on participants consistently refusing to adhere to coronavirus restrictions, including hygiene standards and distancing from fellow protesters. Participants also explicitly said that they would refuse wearing masks during the protest as this was meant to be “the trademark and stated goal” of the protests.

23 July 2021: COVID-19: German pharmacies have stopped giving COVID vaccination status after hackers created fake passes after making up pharmacy owner identities.

29 June 2021: Germany has put henry restrictions for travellers from Portugal after categorising the country as a Delta variant area. The EU commission does not support Germany’s restrictions on Portuguese travellers, insisting they are “not fully aligned” with the recommendation of the 27 of the Council of the EU, which intends to ease travelling restrictions throughout Europe this summer. On 7 July 2021, Germany eased the restrictions after putting the country to the category of “high-incidence areas” instead of the most serious “virus variant areas”.

16 June 2021: German health authorities announced that the country has issued around five million vaccination passports as a part of the European Union’s Digital COVID Certificate system.

14 June 2021: Anyone who was vaccinated against the coronavirus is able to get a digital vaccination pass. Pharmacies issue the vaccination certificate to those who are already vaccinated. These certificates can be stored in the CovPass app or in the Corona Warn-App.

1 June 2021: Germany connected to the gateway and started issuing EU Digital COVID Certificates.


13 September 2021: People who are not vaccinated must present a negative test result every time they gather indoors with others (bus, school, etc.). In order to be able to work, unvaccinated people must present a negative rapid test once a week to their employers and they have to pay for it. Unvaccinated teaching staff and people working in culture must be tested twice a week at their own cost. Healthcare staff must be vaccinated, otherwise they are suspended without pay.

13 July 2021: The government announced that Greece will require customers at indoor restaurants, bars and cafes to prove they have been vaccinated against COVID-19. Under the new regulations, which will remain in force until August, all customers at indoor restaurants will have to be seated. Those dining outdoors will not require proof of vaccination or a test. As Reuters reports, the “government-launched application, COVID FREE GR, which can scan European digital vaccination certificates and test results, will be available to businesses. (...) Public and private sector employers will also have the right to ask employees whether they have been inoculated.”

29 June 2021: Greek government announced that from 15 July 2021, venues that allow only those who are fully vaccinated or have immunity (due to having had the virus in the last six months) to enter, will be permitted to operate at 85% capacity. Mixed areas (where recent negative test certificate holders can enter too) will be permitted to operate at 75% or lower.

1 June 2021: Started issuing EU Digital COVID Certificates.


16 July 2021:’s freedom of information request asking for the contract about the production of immunity cards was denied under the pretense that it contained ‘technical information.’ The investigative journal intends to turn to the courts.

5 July 2021: According to social media reports, foreign citizens holding EU Digital COVID Certificates and travelling as tourists are still denied boarding at airports.

3 July 2021: Hungary lifted almost all COVID-19 related restrictions. Neither the Hungarian immunity card, nor is the EU Digital COVID Certificate required to enter indoor venues like restaurants, hotels and bars.

1 July 2021: According to Government ordinance 366/2021, Hungary is supposed to allow entry to holders of the EU Digital COVID Certificates. EU Digital COVID Certificates will operate alongside Hungary’s own immunity pass scheme (see below).

30 June 2021: Hungary was expected to introduce the EU Digital COVID Certificates.

16 June 2021: Hungarian Civil Liberties Union (HCLU) filed a complaint to the data protection authority NAIH in connection with Hungary’s own immunity pass scheme. According to the complaint, the immunity pass unlawfully contains unnecessary data, and the data stored by the app is not adequately protected from misuse.

1 May 2021: Hungary introduced immunity cards, which attest that their bearers have received at least one vaccine dose or recovered from COVID-19, allowing holders to regain many aspects of pre-pandemic life. In a statement, the Hungarian Civil Liberties Union argued that attaching certain rights to these cards discriminates against those who “due to their state of health, cannot be vaccinated temporarily or permanently," such as women in certain stages of pregnancy, or those with chronic conditions that make vaccination inadvisable.


1 October 2021: People living in Northern Ireland and having an Irish passport are now eligible to apply for the EU Digital COVID Certificate. After 21 October this will be also possible if people got vaccinated outside of the EU.

31 August 2021: The Irish Government announced to lift almost all COVID-19 restrictions by 22 October if the situation stays manageable. This includes the need to show a proof of immunity for being granted entrance to events or indoor locations. Only for international travel the COVID-19 pass will still be needed.

24 July 2021: Hundreds marched in Belfast protesting against restrictions, some carrying placards with anti-vaccine messages. A similar protest was held in Dublin too. There anti-restrictions protestors addressed the issue of vaccine certificates, which are being rolled out for indoor dining and travel.

19 July 2021: Ireland is expected to accept vaccination and immunity EU Digital COVID Certificates. Those whose EU Digital COVID Certificate shows non-PCR test results only will not be able to enter the country.

Early July 2021: The Irish government is pushing through legislation enforcing a vaccine pass system to access indoor dining at pubs and restaurants. The draft law aims at ensuring that only people who are vaccinated against or recovered from COVID-19 will be allowed at these indoor settings. Negative test holders may also be allowed to enter at a later date, but there surely will be a time when they will not be. Liberties’ Irish member, ICCL, has spoken out against this in the media. Also see here.


9 October 2021: More than 10.000 people in Rome protested against the upcoming necessity to hold a COVID-19 Pass to go to work (this is a new law which will come into effect from 15 October). The protests turned violent and 12 people were arrested. Separate groups of protesters tried to storm Prime Minister Mario Draghi’s office, the headquarters of the Italian General Confederation of Labour (CGIL), which is one of the biggest trade unions in Italy and the emergency room of a hospital.

4 October 2021: In the major cities of Italy, protests erupted due to the upcoming mandatory COVID-19 Pass. They claim the right to work is a fundamental right, thus the new restrictions are compromising their freedom and civil liberties.

16 September 2021: The Italian government decided to make a COVID-19 Pass mandatory for all workers from 15 October on. This means showing proof of either a vaccination, recovery, or a negative test. While workers don't completely lose their job without doing so, they will be suspended and lose pay after 5 days. There are high fines if people still go to their jobs without the pass - the fine will be between 600 - 1500€ for workers and 400 - 1000€ for the employers. This is a first in Europe since no other country imposed such strict measures. The tests would have to be paid for by workers and will cost 15€. The new measure was accepted without too much protest from the civil society because all parties approved the decree unanimously.

16 August 2021: Vatican employees must present the so-called Green Pass to access the canteen. The new regulation applies to all employees - including the Vatican gendarmerie. One does not need to show a pass in order to access religious services.

9 August 2021: In Casale Monferrato in Piedmont, a church rector posted the announcement on the church door that unvaccinated churchgoers were no longer welcome in his church.

9 August 2021: Pope Francis is now also equipped with a Green Pass. A copy of the anti-corona certificate common in Italy and other EU countries was requested for the head of the church. All vaccinated Vatican employees are also to receive the document. The Pope himself has been fully vaccinated since the beginning of the year.

8 August 2021: Vatican Museums require “Green Pass” from visitors. Vaccinated, recovered or tested negative: nobody is allowed to visit the Vatican museums without the Green Pass. The Vatican’s policy is based on the Italian COVID-19 protection rules.

27 July 2021: Italian authorities have reissued the digital health pass with advice on how to spot replicas, as fake versions are sold online. The government tweeted advice with step-by-step photo instructions. “Green certificate: how to easily recognise the authentic one,” the tweet read. The authorised app is called ‘VerificaC19‘, which is free to download, and works by scanning the QR code of the green pass. This provides personal information of the holder and proof that they meet the health criteria to access many venues and cultural sites in Italy.

22 July 2021: Health Minister Roberto Speranza announced that Italy's government will make a so-called coronavirus green pass necessary to eat and drink inside a restaurant or bar. Prime Minister Mario Draghi cited the growth in cases as the reason for the new measures.The green pass will be required in sport matches, museums, gyms and other similar venues. Outside dining is exempt, as is eating or drinking at the counter. After disagreements within the governing coalition, the pass will not be needed for transport.

3 July 2021: Italian police said they disbanded a number of online schemes offering to sell fake European Union digital COVID-19 status certificates or purported coronavirus vaccines. The investigation, coordinated by the cybercrime prosecutor’s office in Milan, showed that thousands of people were ready to pay for false certificates.

28 June 2021: All vaccination certificates are to be made available by this date.

17 June 2021: Italy launched the EU Digital COVID Certificate scheme.

15 June 2021: Italy was to start issuing and accepting the EU Digital COVID Certificate.


1 June 2021: Launch of EU Digital COVID Certificate.


13 September 2021: People who don't hold the National Certificate (COVID-19 passport) are not allowed access to almost all non-essential stores and services like gyms and sporting events. For entrance to those venues, people either have to show proof of a vaccination, recovery (valid for 210 days after positive test result) or a negative test result, while the PCR or antigen test can’t be older than 48 hours. Indeed, testing will only be free for gaining access to non-necessary healthcare services.

While the National Certificate is only valid in Lithuania, the same rules apply for the EU Digital COVID Certificate.

While the National Certificate is only valid in Lithuania, the same rules apply for the EU Digital COVID Certificate.

22 June 2021: Launch of EU Digital COVID Certificate.


1 July 2021: Launch of EU Digital COVID Certificate.


1 October 2021: Maltese authorities now will accept an EU Digital Recovery Certificate, if the recovery is not older than 6 months and one dose of an accepted COVID-19 vaccine has been received, as proof of immunity coming into the country. If travellers can only provide a certificate of recovery, they will have to undergo a mandatory 14-day hotel quarantine arriving from “red” or “dark red” countries.

26 August 2021: Even fully vaccinated people who don't hold a permanent residence in Malta have to go into 14-day hotel quarantines after coming back from a "dark red" country. Also, the people must pay their hotel stay, which is at 100€ per night with only breakfast included.

From 14 July 2021: Malta intends to admit to its territory only people who are fully vaccinated against COVID-19. This means that negative PCR test result holders will not be able to enter the territory of Malta. The European Commission asked Malta for clarification, but it has already assessed that this will be discrimination.

1 July 2021: Launch of EU Digital COVID Certificate.


25 September 2021: Everyone must hold the coronavirus entry pass system (CoronaCheck) to access bars, restaurants, and cultural venues. People who are not vaccinated or recovered can get a free Covid test, though. Visitors coming to the Netherlands can prove immunity with the EU Digital COVID Certificate and have the same rights as Dutch holders of the CoronaCheck app.

1 July 2021: The Netherlands introduces the EU Digital COVID Certificate.


1 June 2021: Started issuing EU Digital COVID Certificates.


1 October 2021: Portugal lifted almost all coronavirus restrictions and opened bars and nightclubs, while it is one of the countries with the highest vaccinated population (86%) worldwide and highest in Europe. The EU Digital COVID Certificate will only have to be presented when arriving via sea or plane, visiting bars and nightclubs, healthcare facilities or major events.

22 June 2021: Started issuing EU Digital COVID Certificates.


2 October 2021: Thousands of people have gathered for a demonstration in the Romanian capital to protest the new restrictions. These would forbid entry to cultural places, restaurants, and gyms unless one is fully vaccinated or recovered and an owner of the EU Digital COVID Certificate. The high rises in COVID-19 cases are also due to very low vaccination rates. Only one-third of the Romanian population is vaccinated, which makes Romania the country with the second-lowest vaccination rate in Europe.

1 July 2021: Romania will start issuing EU Digital COVID Certificates.


20 September 2021: While other countries (Lithuania, Norway, Czechia) put Slovakia on the high-risk list, the Slovakian government relaxed border controls. If one can prove they have been fully vaccinated, they can enter the country without restrictions. Even if checks aren’t carried out that strictly anymore, all others (recovered or tested) must undergo a five-day mandatory quarantine, and do a PCR test on the fifth day.

15 June 2021: Started issuing EU Digital COVID Certificates.


6 October 2021. The Slovenian government showed unprecedented efforts to keep the ongoing anti-pandemic measures protests from disturbing the EU-Western Balkans summit. In certain areas in the capital Ljubljana, the lakeside resort of Bled and around the conference centre movement was restricted and protests prohibited.

30 September 2021: Slovenia's Constitutional Court has blocked a governmental reform which would have made coronavirus vaccination mandatory for public employees. The court decided, the risks of implementing an unconstitutional measure would outweigh the risk of having unvaccinated public employees.

17 September 2021: Thousands have gathered in Ljubljana to protest against the new health pass measures. Some of the protestors have even become violent, while in turn, the police started using used tear gas and water cannons.

15 September 2021: The Slovenian government imposed strict measures to combat the 4th wave of COVID-19 infections. The measures will make COVID-19 health passes mandatory to be allowed to go into most shops, service venues, or workplaces. Only emergency medical services and grocery shops would not require the COVID-19 health pass, which is the national pendant of the EU Digital COVID Certificate.

15 July 2021: Significantly tighter rules for entering Slovenia took effect, as the colour-coded list of countries was replaced with the requirement that passengers who wish to enter the country need to have a COVID-19 certificate regardless of where they come from. The certificate will have to prove that passengers have had a negative PCR test within the last 72 hours, a negative rapid antigen within the last 48 hours, a certificate of vaccination or proof that they have recovered from the virus. The EU’s green digital certificate and equivalent certificates of third countries are acceptable.

1 July 2021: Digital coronavirus certificates are to be obtained at vaccination and testing points around the country. Information on how to obtain certificates can be found here.

30 June 2021: Those who have been vaccinated with both jabs, or with one in case of the single-dose vaccines, were supposed to receive their vaccination certificates to their home address by 30 June. A few days later, those who have already recovered from COVID-19 and those vaccinated with only one jab were also supposed to receive it.

24 June 2021: Slovenia test-introduced the EU Digital COVID Certificate. Janez Poklukar, the Minister of Health, told the press that in the coming days, police would start using special devices to check the certificates on the border.


18 August 2021: Spain’s Supreme Court rejected the introduction of a Digital COVID Certificate to access restaurants, bars, museums, and other public places. The judges argued that there was no “substantial justification” to require citizens to present a health pass before entering bars and nightclubs, a measure that “restrictively affects basic elements of freedom of movement and the right of assembly”. Previously, regional courts in Andalusia, the Canary Islands, Galicia, and Cantabria had issued similar rulings, announcing that there will be no obligation to show vaccination passes to enter nightclubs, bars, restaurants, or other similar venues.

7 June 2021: Started issuing EU Digital COVID Certificates.


1 October 2021: Following Denmark and Norway, Sweden becomes the third Nordic country to lift almost all COVID-19 restrictions, since the vaccination rate is relatively high amongst the population. At the same time, Sweden still holds up travel bans on epidemiologically non-safe countries, where even vaccinated persons would not be allowed non-necessary entry to the country. Find out for which countries this applies here.

1 July 2021: Launch of EU Digital COVID Certificate.



4 October 2021: With only 61% of the total population vaccinated, European countries plan for the booster shot. This is even though the WHO proposed to rather give shots to fewer equipped countries and the European Medicines Agency still didn't give a final statement on the effectiveness or danger of booster shots.

1 October 2021: There is a deep divide in terms of vaccination rates visible in Europe. Especially Eastern European countries struggle with vaccination rates, even though the infrastructure is there. Some experts claim this is due to an inherent skeptical population, which learned to mistrust governments in communist times. The European Commission recognizes this problem and wants more campaigns targeted towards skeptical people.

11 August 2021: Check Point® Software Technologies Ltd. found that an increasing number of “Telegram” groups are advertising falsified vaccination records. Advertising of such records increased by 257% worldwide. In March 2021, the advertisements were primarily intended for the USA, Great Britain and Germany - now many countries are targeted too, including the Netherlands, Switzerland, Italy, Greece,Pakistan, Indonesia and France.

7 July 2021: “I think the Commission has delivered, parliament has delivered […] and the member states went their own way,” Dutch MEP and Renew Europe group member, Sophie in ‘t Veld told the plenary session. The “ink hadn’t dried on the common approach and the member states went their own way again. And now again, we are dealing with a spaghetti of national rules,” she added. Lawmakers bemoaned a lack of clear information. Dutch MEP Tineke Strik said that “not only do member states make up their own rules but there’s also a huge lack of clear information. Citizens are totally confused and uncertain.”

1 July - 12 August: Phase-in period - if a Member State is not yet ready to issue the new certificate to its citizens, other formats can still be used and should be accepted in other Member States.

1 July 2021: Euractiv reports that the Delta variant is threatening to curtail the use of the EU-wide COVID-19 certificate. A surge in the Delta variant could trigger an “emergency brake” provision suspending its acceptance.

1 July 2021: The EU Digital COVID Certificate enters into force throughout the EU.

24 June 2021: Norway joined the European Union’s gateway for the issuance and verification of the EU COVID-19 Vaccination Passport for those who have been vaccinated against the Coronavirus, those who have recovered in the last six months, and those who test negative before their trip. There are a few other non-EU countries that have also joined the scheme.

1 - 30 June 2021: Warm-up phase - Member States can launch the certificate on a voluntary basis provided they are ready to issue and verify certificates, and have the necessary legal base in place.

14 June 2021: EU Presidents officially sign regulation on EU vaccine passports for travel.

9 June 2021: Over one million EU citizens have obtained their COVID vaccination passports.

1 June 2021: EU Gateway (interconnection of national systems) goes live.

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